JOHANNES TRITHEMIUS

1462-1516

Abbot of Sponheim

A TREATISE ON THE SEVEN SECONDARY CAUSES, I.E.,

INTELLIGENCES, OR SPIRITS, WHO MOVE THE SPHERES

ACCORDING TO GOD

A Little Book or MYSTICAL CHRONOLOGY

Containing within a Short Compass Marvellous Secrets

Worthy of Interest

To the august and pious Maximilian I, Emperor & Caesar by the Grace of God:

Most wise Emperor, this lower world, created and organized by the First Intelligence, who is God, is ruled by Secondary Intelligences. Hermes, who gave us the science of the Magi, confirms this view when he says that seven Spirits were assigned to the seven Planets from the beginning of the heavens and of the earth.

Each of these Spirits rules the universe in turn for a period of 354 years and 4 months. Many learned scholars, up to the present day, have approved this assertion, which I do not guarantee, but only lay before your Most Blessed Majesty.

The first Angel or Spirit, that of Saturn, is called Oriphiel God confided the government of the world to him starting with the beginning of creation. Oriphiel's reign began on March 15 and lasts 354 years and 4 months. The name Oriphiel was given to him on account of his spiritual office, not his nature. Under his rule, humans were crude and savage. Their customs recalled those of wild beasts of the wilderness. This requires no demonstration, for it is clearly evident from the Book of Genesis.

The second guiding Spirit of the world was Anael, the Spirit of Venus, who, following Oriphiel, began to emit stellar influence in the year of the world 354, on June 24. Anael ruled the world for 354 years and 4 months until the year of creation 708, as calculation shows. Under Anael's rule, human beings began to be less crude. They built houses and cities, invented manual arts, and began the twin arts of the weaving and spinning of yarn. They also gave themselves up to the pleasures of the flesh and took wives. Forgetting God, they grew distant in many things from natural simplicity, invented games and songs, set themselves to playing the kithara and imagined all that had to do with Venus and her cult. This life of debauchery ended only with the deluge that was the punishment for their depravity.

The third ruler, Zachariel, the Angel of Jupiter, began to rule the world in the year 708 after the creation of the heavens and the earth, in the eighth monththat is, on October 26. Zachariel ruled the universe for 354 years and 4 months until the year 1060. Under Zachariel's direction humans began to take turns usurping power. They began to hunt, to put up tents, to decorate their bodies with different kinds of clothes. The good were separated from the evil the good invoked God, like Enoch who entered into Him, while the evil plunged into pleasures of the flesh. Under Zachariel, people began to live in society, to submit to laws imposed upon them by the strongest among them and, distancing themselves from their earlier barbarism, to civilize themselves. It was under Zachariel's rule that Adam, the first human being, died, leaving to posterity the inevitability of death. Lastly, in these days, several human inventions occurred, curious arts, as historians tell us.

The fourth ruler of the world was Raphael, the Spirit of Mercury, whose rule began on February 24 of the year 1063 following the creation of the earth and the heavens, and lasted 354 years and 4 months. The invention of writing goes back to this period. To begin with, letters were imagined in the forms of trees and plants, later taking on more careful forms to be mod)fied at will. Under Raphael, the use of musical instruments spread; commerce and trading were practiced, as well as long-distance navigation, and many other marvelous things.

The fifth ruler of the world was Samael, the Angel of Mars, who began to reign on June 26, 1417.

Samael ruled for 354 years and 4 months and impressed his influence strongly upon humanity. Under Samael's reign, in the year of the world 1656, the universal flood occurred, as the Book of Genesis clearly shows. It is a remarkable fact, as the ancient philosophers tell us, that each time Samael, the Genius of Mars, governs the world, a complete change occurs in some great monarchy: religions and castes are overturned; great persons and princes are exiled; laws are changed as one can easily see in the historians. Such changes do not occur right at the beginning of Samael's reign, but only as it enters its second half. The same is true for all the other planetary Spirits, as history shows. That is, the influence of the secondary powers reaches its height when the stars reach the zenith of their revolution.

The sixth ruler of the world was Gabriel, Angel of the Moon. Gabriel began his reign after that of Samael, the Spirit of Mars, on October 28, 1771 years after the creation of the world. Gabriel's rule lasted 354 years and 4 months until the year 2126. During this period human beings multiplied further and founded many new cities. It must be noted, too, that, according to the Hebrews, the Flood occurred under the rule of Mars in the year of the world 1656. Isidore and Beda, two interpreters of the Septuagint, on the other hand, claim that this cataclysm occurred in the year 2242 that is, under the rule of Gabriel, Spirit of the Moon, which by calculation seems to me closer to the truth, though this is not the place to prove it.

The seventh ruler of the world was Michael, the Angel of the Sun, whose rule began, according to ordinary calculation, on February 24 in the year 2126 after the creation, and finished 354 years and 4 months later in the year 2480. Under the rule of this Angel of the Sun, according to those historians most worthy of belief, Kings first began to appear among mortals, and among these was Nimrod, the first to use sovereign power to tyrannize his fellows who were devoured by passions. Thus human folly instituted the cult of the Gods. Humans began to worship the lower principles as Gods. At this time, too, humanity invented various arts: Mathematics, Astronomy, Magic. The cult of a single God was practiced by different creatures but, due to human superstition, knowledge of the true God was gradually forgotten. At this time, likewise, agriculture began to be practiced and human beings began to have more civilized customs and institutions.

In eighth place, Oriphiel, the Angel of Saturn, returned and ruled the universe again for 354 years and 4 months-from June 26, 2480 until September, 2834. Under this Angel's rule, nations multiplied, the earth was divided into regions, and many kingdoms were founded. The Tower of Babel was built and "the confusion of tongues" occurred. Thus humanity dispersed over the earth and human beings began energetically to work the soil and cultivate fields, to sow wheat and plant vines, to prune fruit trees and busy themselves with all that concerned food and clothing. From this moment on, the distinction of nobility began to manifest and those who excelled by their virtue and genius received the insignia they deserved from their princes. At this time, too, humanity began to gain a sense of the universe as a whole, as, after the multiplication of races and the founding of many kingdoms, different languages came into being.

Then, in ninth place, the Spirit of Venus, Anael, began to rule the world once more. This was on October 29 in the year 2834 after the creation of the heavens and the earth. Anael ruled for 354 years and 4 months until the year of the world 3189. During this period, human beings, forgetting God, began to create a cult of the Dead. They began to worship the Dead and their statues in place of God.

This was an error that lasted more than two thousand years. Fashion introduced the use of precious ornaments for the body and, with the help of different sorts of musical instruments, humanity abandoned itself once again to the passions and pleasures of the flesh, raising these up and even dedicating statues and temples to them. During this time Zoroaster, the first King of the Bactrians and other peoples, defeated in battle by Ninus, King of the Assyrians, discovered the mystery of incantations and curses.

In tenth place, Zachariel, the Angel of Jupiter, took up the direction of the world. This was on the last day of February in the year 3189 after the foundation of the heavens and the earth. Zachariel ruled for 354 years and 4 months, until the year 3543. This was a happy period, known with reason as the "Golden Age." The abundance of all the earth's goods led to the increase of the human species and the universe reached the height of its splendor. During this period, God gave Abraham the law of circumcision, promising for the first time the redemption of humanity by the incarnation of his only Son. Under Zachariel's rule, the Patriarchs, those founders of the spirit of justice, appeared. By their will and their works, the just were separated from the unjust. During this time, too, Jupiter, under the name of Lisanius, King and Son of Heaven and of God, was the first to give laws to the Arcadians, succeeding in civilizing them, building temples, instituting a priestly craft, and gaining many useful things for his people. This was why they gave him the name of Jupiter and, after his death, looked on him as a God. Yet he originated in the priestly caste of Heber, as history declares. It is also said that during this Angel's rule Prometheus, son of Atlantus, created humanity because, finding them coarse, he made them learned, human, good, and accomplished in manners and customs. He also invented the art of animating images. And it was he who first used the ring, the scepter, and the diadem, and invented royal insignia. At the same time, other sages of the race of Jupiter united men and women with the bonds of marriage, and brought humanity many other useful things. On account of their wisdom, after their death, these sages were raised into the ranks of the Gods. Of this kind were: Phoroneus, who was the first to give the Greeks laws and justice, Apollo, Minerva, Ceres, Serapis (among the Egyptians), and countless others.

In eleventh place, Raphael, the Spirit of Mercury, resume.d the guidance of the world again on July 1, in the year of the world 3543, ruling 354 years and 4 months until the year 3897 from the creation of the world. [During this period, as ancient historians clearly show, humanity yielded with ardor to the study of wisdom. Among the most illustrious of these devotees of wisdom were: Mercurius, Bacchus, Omogyrus, Isis, Inachus, Argus, Apollo, Cecrops, and many others who, by their discoveries, were useful to the world and to posterity. During this time, too, various superstitions arose in humankind, such as the cult of idols, incantations, and the art of producing diabolical prodigies. Everything generally attributable to the subtlety and genius of Mercury took on vast proportions. Moses, the most wise leader of the Hebrews, the expert in many sciences and in all the arts, priest of the sole and true God, delivered his people from the slavery in which the Egyptians had kept them. At this same time, Janus the First ruled over Italy; Saturn, who taught the manuring of fields and was taken for a God, succeeded him. About this time, too, Cadmus invented the Greek letters and Carmetis, daughter of Evander, Latin letters. It was also in the reign of Raphael, Angel of Mercury, that the All-Powerful gave his people by the intermediary of Moses, the Law to which the Incarnation of CHRIST gave a dazzling testimony. A prodigious variety of cults manifested in the world. There were then numerous Sibyls, Prophets, Augurs, Haruscipes, Magi, Diviners, not to mention the Sibyls of Erythrea, Delphi, and Phrygia.

In the twelfth epoch, Samael, Angel of Mars, became the world's ruler for a second time. This was on October 2 of the year of the world 3897. Samael ruled 354 years and 4 months until the year 4252. Under his reign, the great and celebrated destruction of Troy in Asia Minor occurred. Monarchies and many kingdoms fell and new ones were founded, such as Paris, Mainz, Carthage, Naples, and others. New kingdoms, too, arose, such as that of Lacedemon, Corinth, Jerusalem, .

During this period, long wars and great struggles of Kings and nations unfolded, as well as dynastic changes. The Venetians, for example, trace the origin of their people and the founding of their city to this period of the taking of Troy. More remarkably still, several nations of Europe and Asia lay claim to Trojan descent-but in the desire to glorify themselves, as if there had not existed famous people and nations in Europe before the ruin of Troy, the proofs they offer in support of the nobility of their origin are vain and deceptive.

Under the dominion of this same planet, Mars, Saul, the First, was chosen King of the Jews. After him came David, then his son Solomon, who built to the true God a Temple in Jerusalem that was famous throughout the world. Then the Divine Spirit, illuminating its prophets with the incomparable clarity of grace, gave them not only the gift of predicting the future incarnation of the Savior, but also many other things, as the Holy Scriptures attest. Among these prophets, we may cite Nathan, son of King David, Gad, Azaph, Achaias, Semeias, Azarias, Anan, and many others. The Greek poet Homer, singer of the Fall of Troy, the Phrygian Dares and the Cretan Dictis who witnessed and told of it, are also said to have lived at this time.

For the thirteenth period, Gabriel, the genius of the Moon, resumed the rulership of the world on January 30 of the year 4252 from the world's beginning. Gab~iel ruled 354 years and 4 months, until the year 4606. During this period several great prophets shone among the Hebrews: Elisha, Micah, Abdiah, and others. Among the Hebrews, likewise, Kings succeeded each other with rapidity. Lycurgus gave the Spartans a code and laws. Capitus, Liberius, Romulus, and Procas Sylius, and Numitor-Italian Kings-flourished under this Spirit's reign. Under this same Lunar influence a number of other kingdoms arose, such as those of the Lydians, the Medes, the Macedonians, the Spartans, etc., while the Assyrian monarchy was ended by Sardanapalus. The Kingdom of Media also disappeared. At this time, many different kinds of laws were imposed upon humanity. Human beings neglected the worship of God. The cult of idols became widespread. In 4491, the 239th year of Gabrzel's reign, the foundations of Rome were laid. The dominion of the Sylians ended in Italy, their place being taken by the Romans. Around this time, too, the Seven Sages appeared in Greece: Thales, Solon, Cheilon, Periander, Cleobulus, Bias of Priene, and Pittacus. From this moment on, philosophers and poets began to be held in high esteem. Romulus, founder of Rome, fratricide, and abettor of sedition, ruled the city for 37 years. His successor, Numa Pompilius, ruled for 42 years, developing the cult of the Gods and dying in the time of Ezechias, King of the Jews. Toward the end of Gabriel 's rule, Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, captured and destroyed Jerusalem and led King Sedecias and his people into captivity. The prophet Jeremiah foretold both this destruction and the end of this captivity.

Following Gabriel, on May 1 of the year of the world 4606, Michael, the Spirit of the Sun, took up the world's scepter for the second time. Michael ruled the universe for 354 years and 4 months, until the year 4960 of the world's foundation. During his period, Merodach, King of Babylon, gave the Hebrew people their liberty and their King. This was under the influence of Michael, who, as the book of Daniel tells, protected the dews whom God had given him. At this time, too, the Persian monarchy arose whose first Kings, Darius and Cyrus, overturned the great Babylonian monarchy. This was in the reign of Balthasar, as Daniel and the prophets predicted. The Cumaean Sibyl was also famous then, because of the offer she made to King Tarquin the Elder to sell him at once, and at the same price, the nine books containing the series of predictions having to do with the Roman Republic. When the King refused to pay the price that was asked, the Sybil burnt the first three books before his eyes, and then demanded the same sum for the remaining six. Refused again, she threw three more books into the fire, and would have done the same for the last three, had not the King, persuaded by his Counsellors, saved these books from destruction by agreeing to pay the price asked in the beginning for the set of nine. These same Romans, after the expulsion of their Kings, designated two Consuls annually. This was the period when Phalaris, the tyrant, ruled in Sicily. Magic was held in great esteem at this time among the Kings of Persia. Pythagoras and other philosophers flourished in Greece. The city of Jerusalem and its Temple were reconstructed. The prophet Esdras restored from memory the Books of Moses, which had been burnt by the Chaldeans. This new text was called the Babylonian version. Xerxes, King of Persia, led an army against the Greeks, but without great effect. The Gauls captured, burned, and destroyed Rome, except for the Capitol which was saved by a goose who awoke the sleeping soldiers with his honking. The Athenians were then engaged in their famous wars and the philosophers Socrates and Plato gained their renown. Following the repeal of the Consuls, the Romans instituted the offices of the Tribunes and the Aediles. Meanwhile, a host of calamities assailed them.

Immediately following the end of Michael's dominion, Alexander the Great ruled in Macedonia; he overcame the Persian monarchy under Darius, and brought all Asia under his scepter, as well as a part of Europe. He died at the age of 33, after a reign of 12 years and 5 months. Many wars and ills followed his death and his empire was dismembered into four parts. Among the Hebrews, competitions were held for the High Priesthood for the first time. And the Kingdom of Syria was born.

After Michael, Oriphiel, the Spirit of Saturn, took up the government of the world for the third time (and the fifteenth period) on the last day of September in the year 4960 from the beginning of the world. He ruled for 354 years and 4 months, until the year 5315. Under his rule, the Punic Wars began between the Romans and the Carthaginians. The city of Rome was almost completely destroyed by fire and water. The Colossus, a bronze sculpture, 126 feet high, was toppled by an earthquake. After the Punic War, Rome, which had warred unceasingly for 440 years, enjoyed a year of peace. Jerusalem and its Temple were burnt and destroyed by Antiochus and Epiphanes. The Maccabees became famous for glorious battles. During this period, too, 606 years after the founding of Rome, Carthage was destroyed and burned for seventeen days. In Sicily, the revolt of the 70,000 slaves against their masters occurred. Great wonders took place at this time in Europe. Domestic animals fled into the woods, blood flowed, and an exploding ball of fire fell from the sky with a great din. Mithridates, King of Pontus and Armenia, waged a war against Rome for 40 years. The Kingdom of the Hebrews was restored, after a hiatus lasting 575 yearsfrom Zedechias to Aristobulus. The Germans and the Teutons invaded Italy and were defeated after many battles, losing 160,000 men, not counting the considerable number of those who perished with their families under Caius and Manlius, after having treacherously killed many Romans. Finally, 40 years of civil war desolated Italy. Three suns appeared in Rome, melting, after a short time, into one. A few years later,Julius Caesar usurped the supreme power, and following him Augustus extended his power into Asia and Africa, uniting these under a single rule. Augustus ruled for 36 years, during which God gave the world peace.

In the year of the world 5199, the 751st year of Rome's foundation, the 42nd year of Octavius Caesar Augustus, 245 years into the reign of Oriphiel, the Spirit of Saturn, the eighth month, on December 25, Jesus Christ, the Son of God, was born of the Virgin Mary, in Bethlehem, inJudea. Note that by the admirable ordering of divine Providence, the universe was created in the first rulership of Oriphiel or Saturn and was saved, restored, and renewed by his mercy during his third administrationa harmonious agreement which aufficiently proves the influence of the seven planets on the government of the universe. Indeed, during Oriphiel's first rulership, the whole world formed but a single, vast monarchy, which, during his second rulership, subdivided into a multitude of little kingdomsas we have shown abovewhich themselves were brought into unity once again under his third rulership. This notwithstanding, it is clear to those with clairvoyant eyes that the second period of Oriphiel also saw a single monarchy with the building of the Tower of Babel. During this third reign of Oriphiel the Kingdom of the dews was scattered and the perpetual sacrifice of victims was suspended. And freedom will not be given to the Jews again until the third period of Michael in August 1880 of the Christian Era, which is the year of the world 7170. In the year 299 of the Angel Oriphiel's rulership, Peter transferred the great Office of the Pontiff of the Universal Christian Church from Judea to Rome. Many Jews and Gentiles embraced the Christian religion on account of the preaching of sermons of great simplicity and un-sophistication, illuminated not by human knowledge but by the Spirit of God. The world at this moment returned to the innocence and simplicity of the first age. In both, Oriphiel, Spirit of Saturn, presided. The heavens were united with the earth. Two scepters were given to humanity to rule the world: a higher one, for spiritual things, was given to the Pope; another, for temporal things, was given to the Emperor. Many Christians, persecuted by the princes of this world, perished for their faith. Toward the end of Oriphiel's reign, the Romans destroyed Jerusalem, and the Jews were scattered over all the earth: 110,000 were killed; 80,000 were sold; and the rest fled. In this way, Rome completely destroyed Judea.

In sixteenth place, after Oriphiel, Anael, Spirit of Venus, took up the direction of the universe for the third time on the last day of January, 5315 years from the foundation of the heavens and the earth, 109 years after Christ's Nativityto rule for 354 years and 4 months to the year of the world 5669 and 4 months, which is the year 463 of the Lord's incarnation. We may note that, during almost this entire reign of the Angel of Venus, the Christian Church increased amidst persecutions, and finally prevailed after thousands were murdered for their faith in Christ. Numerous heresies then arose in the bosom of the Churchheresies that were extinguished from the blood of the virtuous only with great trouble and after much time. At that time, too, numerous people arose who were celebrated in all branches of knowledge: theologians, astronomers, doctors, orators, historiansnot only among the gentiles but also among Christians. The faithless finally stopped persecuting the Church after Constantine the Great was baptized in the year of the world 5539 when the Angel of Venus, Anael had passed the culminating point of its cycle of dominion. After this there were still some troubles caused by impious people, but the Church generally lived in peace. During this period, the human race which, since the time of King Ninus had been miserably lost in the cult of idols for 2,300 years, was mercifully brought back to knowledge of the one God. Many subtle arts grew up and, in agreement with the nature of Venus, developed and embellished themselves. For human manners change with the times and things below correspond with things above, and receive their influence. The soul, besides, is free, and

not under the influence of the stars, unless it becomes stained, being too attached to the body, and allows itself to be guided by the latter. For the Angels, engines of the orbs, can neither destroy nor alter anything established by nature. A huge comet announced the death of Constantine. The Arian heresy troubled the Holy Church in many places. Toward the end of Anael's rule, in the time of the Emperor Julian, crosses appeared on the linen robes of certain per sons. In Asia and Palestine, wars, plagues, and famines followed the apparitions in which these crosses were seen. In these days, too, around the year 360 of the Christian Era, the Franks came out of Germany and invaded, occupied, and conquered Gaul, to which they gave their name. France was great and large, and its capital was Mainz (Herbipolis). Bavarians, Swabians, Saxons, Thuringians, the inhabitants of the Rhine, and the tribes surrounding the Papal Kingdom occupied the greater part of what was then France and which today includes Germany. 280 years into this reign of Anael, the Roman Empire began its decline. Its capital, Rome, was cap tured and burned by the Goths. This was after Constantine had moved the seat of the Empire to Byzantium, a fatal deed that caused the decadence of the entire monarchy. Indeed, toward the end of Anael's rule, there appeared, as historians tell, Radagif, Alaric, and Athaulfe, Kings of the Goths, who were soon followed by Ganseric, King of the Vandals, and Attila, King of the Hunsall of whom invaded the whole of Europe and cut the Empire into pieces.

Following Anael, and in seventeenth place, Zachariel, Spirit of Jupiter, took up the direction of the world for the third time on June 1 of the year of the world 5669, which is the year 463 after the Birth of the Savior. He ruled for 354 years and 4 months, to the year of the world 6023, which is the year of the Savior 817. During these days, many people gave themselves passionately to the study of Christian philosophy. Many wonders occurred: comets, earth quakes, rainfalls of blood.

Merlin, who was born in Caledonia at the beginning of Zachariel's rule, made astonishing predictions. Arcturus, commonly called Arthur, most famous King of Britain, overcame the barbarians, brought peace to the Church, triumphed in many battles, spread abroad the Christian faith, and brought all of Gaul, Norway, Dacia, as well as several provinces, under his rule. Arthur was the most glorious prince of his time; after accomplishing many high deeds, he suddenly disappeared, and for many years the Britons awaited his return. Many poets sang of his prodigious exploits; under his rule, England flourished and commanded three times ten kingdoms.

In these days, the monastic Orders began to multiply in God's Church. Theodoric, King of the Arian Goths, conquered Italy. The Empire and the Church were in trouble. Zeno and Anastasius, the Emperor of the East, Theodoric and his successors in Italy, Honorius, King of the Vandals in Africa-all these exercised an unequaled tyranny. Clovis, King of the Franks of Gaul, was baptized, overcame the Goths, and imposed peace, though not in the whole world. This was in the time of St. Benedict, around the year 500 of the Christian Era, toward the opening of the reign of Zachariel, the Angel of Jupiter; whose influence led to changes of dynasties and kingdoms, as the historians repeatedly affirm. What this Angel cannot do himself, he leaves to his successor Raphael, Angel of Mercury, who put Charlemagne on the throne of France. Indeed, during Zachariel's 350 years many empires crumbled, including those of the Goths, the Vandals, the Burgundians, the Lombards, the Thuringians, the Germans, the Bavarians, and many others. The Emperor Justinian was the first to give the Republic a coherent set of laws. Several eminent people gained renown under Zachariel. Justinian built the basilica of Sancta Sophia in Constantinople. The Empire, divided, was in trouble and confusion. Many omens appeared, as history tells. Kusro, King of the Persians, took Jerusalem. Later, he was assassinated by Heracles. At this time, around the year 600 of the Christian Era, the Arab Mohammed founded the sect of the Saracens. This would soon completely supplant the Roman Empire in Asia. Dagobert, King of France, conquered and destroyed the English, then called the "Saxons."

It must be noted that soon afterward the Christian faith began to weaken in Asia and Africa, while the sect of the Saracens gradually penetrated everywhere, soon covering the whole world, with the exception of Europe, where the Order of St. Benedict spread the Christian religion. Toward the year of our Lord 774, crosses appeared on some people's clothing and, a little later, the Roman Empire was divided, one part passing into Frankish hands under Charlemagne. This prince restored the Church and fought many wars. After his victories, the name "Western Gaul" was given to the Saxon territory.

In eighteenth place, following Zachariel (the Angel of Jupiter) Raphael (the Spirit of Mercury) assumed the government of the world for the third time on November 2, 6023 years after the world's foundation, which is the year 817 of the Savior's birth. Raphael ruled the universe for 354 years and 4 months, until the year of the world 6378, which is the year of our Lord 1171. At the beginning of this period of Mercury, as we have said, the Roman Empire passed into the hands of Charlemagne. After him, his son Louis reigned for 25 years; after his death his sons fought against each other, thus weakening the Empire yet again. The Normans devastated Gaul. Twice, Rome was sacked by the Saracens. It rained blood for three days under Louis II. In Saxony, a whole town, with all its buildings and inhabitants, was swallowed up in a terrible abyss opened up by an earthquake. Toward the year of our Lord 910 great troubles arose in Italy, which left the Frankish Empire and chose its own Kings. The first was Berenger, Prince of Friuli, who was followed by seven Kings in a space of about fifty yearswhen the Empire passed to the Germans. The first Emperor was Otto I, who undertook to reconstruct the monarchy.

Otto II, his son, and Otto III, his nephew, the successors on the imperial throne, converted the Hungarian people to the Christian faith. In the year 1000 of the Christian Era, Otto III, who died with out progeny, established the Electors of the Empire, as has been conserved even to our own days. The Saracens took Jerusalem again.

Many omens were seen in the sky, the air, on the earth, the sea, and in the waters. Following the death of Otto III, Henry I was elected by the princes to succeed him. Henry I reigned 20 years and founded the Church of Bamberg. At the same time, Kunegund, his wife, died a virgin, famous for her miracles. After Henry, Konrad I was elected Emperor. He reigned 20 years. At this time also Godefroy, Count of Bouillon, dispersed the infidels from Jerusalem and the Holy Land. Before the end of Raphael's rule, many omens and numerous signs were seen; and, a little later, the Tartar race left its frontiers and inflicted great evils on the Roman Empire. Famines, plagues, earthquakes, and other calamities befell the Empire. In the year of our Lord 1153, Frederick I, called Barbarossa, assumed the scepter. He reigned for 33 years beginning in the 336th year of Raphael's rulership and accomplished many admirable things. He increased the power of his Empire and successfully undertook many wars. Under his reign, the Egians and the Lithunians embraced Christianity.

In nineteenth place, Samael, the Angel of Mars, took up for the third time the governance of the world on March 3 of the year of the world 6378. He ruled 354 years and 4 months, until the year of the world 6732, or the year of the Lord 1525. Under his rulership there were many wars in the world; thousands of people perished, and several kingdoms lost their borders. The Emperor Frederick I had many differences with the Princes of Italy; he waged great wars against them in which they perished in the thousands. He ravaged Milan from top to bottom. Liege was destroyed. Jerusalem was taken again by the Saracens.

The Empire of the Tartars grew greatly on the face of the earth. This was a true calamity for the world-and continues still today. After Frederick, his son Henry was elected Emperor. And on Henry's death a schism between Philip and Otto divided the Empire, causing great troubles. Many battles were fought on the German bordersat Argentine, Cologne, Leiden, Spires in Wurtemburg and throughout the kingdom. The Order of Mendicants was founded during this epoch, in the fortieth year or so of Samael, which shows that all things are providential. In Asia and Africa, the Saracens fought the Christians in numerous places. Constantinople was taken by the Germans, and Baudoin, Count of Flanders, was raised to imperial dignity. More than 20,000 German children, seduced by Iying speeches into trying to reconquer the Holy Land, were carried off by pirates on the open sea. A group of shepherds from Spain approached Paris, seizing the property of the clergy, much to the delight of the peoplebut when they sought to seize the possessions of lay people, they were massacred. In 1212 (of the Christian Era), Frederick II was elected Emperor; he reigned 33 years and did many things against the Church. In 1238, there was an eclipse and continuous earthquakes destroyed thousands of people. Frisia was almost completely submerged and more than 100,000 people drowned. The Tartars devastated Hungary and Poland, and conquered Armenia and several other countries. In the year l244 of the Christian Era, a Jew, digging in the ground near Toledo, found a book in which it was written that Christ would be born of the Virgin Mary in the third world and would suffer for the salvation of humanity; he converted immediately and was baptized. The third world, i.e., the third period of the Spirit of Saturn, was, as we have shown, when Christ was born of a Virgin. During this period of Samael, the Roman pontiffs, deposing the Emperor Frederick, left the imperial throne empty for 28 years until the election of Rudolf, Count of Hamburg, who was chosen in favor of the other princely candidates: Henry, Count of Schwarzenburg in Thuringia; William, Count of Holland; Konrad, Frederick's son; Alphonzo, King of Castiile; and Richard, Count of Cornwall, brother of the King of England. Ills multiplied upon the earth. Then, around the year of our Savior 1260, the Swiss Confederation was born, a small country that was to grow with time. Because its people were warlike, it attacked other nations and thus extended its borders. This made all Germany know of the existence of this new republic. Then, in the year 1273 of the Christian Era, the Assembly of Imperial Princes elected Rudolf of Hapsburg. He ruled for 18 years, prudent and wise in many things. All the Dukes of Austria descend from him. The Tartars invaded the Christian lands, seizing Constantinople and Greece, and causing much damage. The Saracens took several cities in Asia, killing more than 400 Christians. Upon the death of Rudolf, Adolf of Nassau was elected Emperor and ruled for 6 years. Albert, Rudolf's son, defeated him at Worms and, after killing him, was elected in his place in 1298. After ruling 10 years, he was himself killed by his brother's son. The Order of the Templars was destroyed on the orders of Pope Clement V. The island of Rhodes was taken by the Saracens following an uninterrupted siege lasting 4 years. After the assassination of Albert by his nephew, Henry VIII, Count of Luxemburg, was named Emperor and ruled 5 years. After him, Louis IV of Bavaria was Emperor for 32 years, beginning in 1315. The Roman Cardinals gave him the crown. Frederick, Duke of Austria, opposed them, but he was defeated. Then Charles IV, King of Bohemia, was Emperor for 31 years. He raised the Bishopric of Prague to an Archbishopric. There were great earthquakes.

In 1453, Constantinople was taken by the Turks on account of the treachery of a certain Janvens. Soon the whole of Greece abandoned Christianity. For, in a short time, several Christian principalities and kingdoms were taken and ravaged by the Turks. In these days, many serious wars broke out among the Christiansin Gaul, in England, in Saxony, in Westphalia, in Prussia, in Flanders, in Sweden, as well as in other countries. At this time, too, the art of printing, which was an admirable discovery, a divine gift, occurred at Mainz, the capital of Germany. In the year 1456 of the Christian Era, the Turks, massacred in Hungary by the faithful, perished in great numbers. An admirable pilgrimage of children came to Saint Michel. There were earthquakes in the Kingdom of Naples which caused more than 40,000 people to perish....

In the year 1486 of the Christian Era, Maximilian, son of Frederick, was consecrated King of the Romans in Frankfurt and hailed as Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Julius II in 1508. He founded the military order of St. George against the heretics and the Turks. He vanquished the Swiss, reduced the Sicambrians, and triumphed over all rebels. The King of France, pursuing the imperial Crown according to his custom, hatched plots against the Empire; but the All-Powerful maintained what had been organized by Samael In 1508, the Venetians, revolting against the authority of the Emperor, were punished by banishment and death. Stubbornness will be punished, wise submission rewarded. Toward the end of this third period of Samael, an important change, returning things to their original, first state, will lead to the destruction of many worlds. In fact, if by the will of God, the "gamma point" is brought to face the North, a great change will occur in some monarchy or great kingdom. A great religious sect will rise up to replace the ancient cults.

It is to be feared that the fourth beast of the Apocalypse could lose a head. During the first period of Samael, Mars announced the flood; during the second, the fall of Troy; toward the end of the third, there will be a break in unity. Indeed, based upon the precedents, one might infer the following: This third period of Mars will not conclude without this prophecy being furfilled and a new religion being instituted. Now, only 17 years remain between the present year of the Christian Era (1508) and the end of Samael's reign in 1525. Omens of ill fortune will be seen. For, before the year 1525 of the Christian Era, the crosses seen these last 10 years on people's clothes will have their consequences....

For the twentieth period, Gabriel, Angel of the Moon, will take up the direction of the world again on June 4 of the year of creation 6732, which is the year 15252 of the Christian Era. Gabriel will govern the world for 354 years and 4 months until the year of the world 7086, the eighth month, or the year of the Lord 1879. It would require a prophecy for the series of future events. I do not guarantee the things I have written, most wise Caesar, but one can reasonably believe in them without damage to one's faith. There are some who believe that these periods correspond to lunar months; if such is your opinion, I could agree, but then it would be necessary to change what I have written.

For the rest, I bear witness with my hand and confess with my mouth that in all things I believe and admit only what the Catholic Church has approved by the authority of its Doctors; all else I thrust aside as vain and superstitious fiction.

(The following correspondences can be drawn from the foregoing given the translation into our calender)

1. 1879 to 1510 Gabriel- Moon (369 yrs)

2. 1510 to 1190 Samuel- Mars (320 yrs)

3. 1190 to 850 Raphael- Mercury (340 yrs)

4. 850 to 500 Zachariel- Jupiter (350 yrs)

5. 500 to 150 Anael- Venus (350 yrs)

6. 150 to 200 BC Oriphiel- Saturn (350 yrs)

Total= 2079 yrs for the cycle